Sesame is an oilseed crop which has been cultivated in India since ancient times. It is also called the world’s first oilseed crop. In India, sesame is grown along with the Kharif crop. Moreover, the primary use of sesame seeds is to extract oil, which is used for food. Its plants are up to one metre high, on which purple and white flowers come. There are mainly two types of sesame, white and black. White sesame is used in large quantities to extract oil, and it is also used in making sweets.
Black sesame is used for doing many types of work. Sesame is cultivated in India in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, and Bundelkhand district of UP is at the fore in terms of sesame production.
Sesame Cultivation Land Requirement
Land with proper drainage is considered suitable for sesame cultivation. It can be easily grown in any fertile soil, and the land pH required is normal.
Its plants require a tropical climate. It is grown in summer with the Kharif crop. Moreover, its plants grow correctly in warm climates. The sesame crop does not need rain and harvest the crop before winter arrives. Sesame plants need average temperature, and plants can easily tolerate the 40-degree temperature.
Farming And Fertilizer Management
In the beginning, two to three slant ploughing of the sesame field is done, and it is left open like this for some time. Immediately after the first ploughing of the area, 10 to 12 old cow dung manure is put in the field of one hectare in the form of organic manure. After applying manure, plough the field and mix the manure in the soil properly. Later, use water in the field and leave it to dry.
After drying the field, two to three slant ploughing is done by applying a rotavator. Then, level the field by using a Powertrac tractor as the Powertrac Euro 60 price is reasonable.. After planting seeds as a chemical fertilizer in a sesame field, 25 kg of urea must be sprayed with irrigation per hectare.
Transplanting Time And Method
Oil seeds are planted in the form of seeds. For this, the sprinkler or drill method is used. Most of the farmers do the sowing of seeds by spraying method. 3 to 4 KG seeds are used per hectare of field. Moreover, these seeds must be treated with Carbendazim and Thiram and planted in the field. Rows are prepared in the field for transplanting by a Farmtrac tractor as the Mahindra 575, Swaraj 744, and John Deere 5310 are affordable.
These lines are made at a distance of one foot, in which the seeds are planted at a gap of 10 to 15 cm. Furthermore, the spraying method sprinkles the seeds in the field and lightly plows through the cultivator. Due to this, the seed gets buried in some depth in the ground. The seed has to be planted in the field after the first rain. During this, the month of June is considered to be the best for sowing seeds.
Sesame plants require very little irrigation. Its first irrigation is done one month after transplanting, and the second irrigation is done during the grain formation on the plants. After this, rinse once again at the time of seed ripening so that the seed can take good shape and production is also obtained in good quantity. Sesame plants are ready for harvesting after two to three irrigations.
To protect the sesame plants from weeds, weeding is done. Its first irrigation is done 20 to 25 days after sowing the seed, and the second irrigation is done 15 days after the first sowing. Moreover, to control weeds by chemical means, spray Alaclor in the field after sowing the seeds.
The sesame crop is harvested 80 to 100 days after sowing the seeds. Its yield is harvested as green plants before the pods burst. After harvesting, the crop is dried well in the sun, separating the grains from the dried plants. These donations are collected.
Improved varieties of sesame give yield up to 8 quintals per hectare. Whose market price is 8 thousand rupees per quintal. Due to this, farmer brothers can earn more than 50 thousand per hectare field from one crop.
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